April 4, 2011
Last week, Dr. Kee Yeon Hwang, president of the Korea Transport Institute, was in town for two enlightening presentations .
the dismantling of a downtown freeway to restore the Cheonggye Stream,
SightLineDaily has a good report of this lecture . As noticed in the report, Dr. Kee Yeon Hwang, has insisted on the historically cultural and spiritual (Feng shui) importance of the stream in the Seoul context.
Thought that the dismantling of the freeway was a campaign promise of the then mayoral candidate Lee Myung-bak, it is not clear how central this promise was in the campaign, since Dr. Kee Yeon Hwang himself admitted he was not expecting to see this promise fulfilled.
It is not clear too how much of the Seoul electorate was using the freeway versus the suburbanite not participating in the vote. In that instance, Seoulites heavily relying on public transit could have got a different opinion of its suburbanite neighbors, like did the Londoner or Stockholm people on congestion charge, or Parisian on the Delanoë program to close the freeway on the Seine river banks (at least during summer month) and introduce bike and bus lanes in the city.
Nevertheless, the point to retain, is that in Seoul; like in Paris with Delanoë or London with Livingstone;
- once invested in a mandate legitimated by recent election, civic leaders have to act fast to ensure that the their constituents are able to measure the positive effect of the controversial shift, that in the time of a mandate.
That is what has been achieved by the very controversial congestion charge in London, that s what has been achieved by the bus lanes and other initiatives from Delanoë in Paris, and that is what has been achieved by the restoration of the Cheonggye Stream in Seoul.
Another important thing to retain and key to the success of the Cheonggye Stream restoration is that in Seoul, like in New York with pedestrianization of Time square, that has eased the congestion.
- the reduction of road space has not to be done at the expense of the mobility in the city
More, the freeway dismantling was part of a package on refocusing transportation on public transit, object of the second lecture presented at Surrey SFU.
The improving of Seoul’s bus service by reforming operating practice
Considering the Vancouver political context, you could have think sensible from the part of SFU to schedule this second lecture in Surrey, since South of the Fraser is well known for not lacking of full time whiner when come to talk of bus service in Surrey and other low density suburbs of the valley.
If I have spotted Jonathan Cote, from New Westminster council, I have failed to see any of those SoF “full time” whiners, including their civic leaders in the very scarce attendance. They seems in fact to show little appetite at listening ideas on how to improve transit in their jurisdiction…may be because they follow a different agenda which is more driven by the promotion of a pet project than anything else.
However in this lecture, Dr. Kee Yeon Hwan has put himself more or less in the shoes of the typical SoF bus rider:
- Low bus frequency with pass-up at that
- Low reliability with lack of information
- slow and circuitous routes
- lack of readability of system
- no fare integration
In brief, the bus system was built to serve a “captive” market, with little regard for its patrons, and in numerous regard was falling behind the rest of the world standard in many aspect.
In the 80′s, Seoul has aggressively developed his subway network- it is one of the busiest in the world- eventually at the expense of its bus system… and global impact on the overall transit modeshare was tiny.
It was becoming clearly evident that an “all subway” policy -limited by funding- couldn’t be good enough to address the mobility needs of Seoul.
Numerous actions have been taken to change it, the first one being the governance of the public transit system. In that instance, the system was apparently one looking like a “leasehold” bus route offering little flexibility for adjustment in the public interest, and has been changed to one of public service concession of 3 years in length. Notice that the later model has became the modus operandi of most of the public transit agencies in Europe and Australia.
This change done, the route network has been rationalized according to the served market, trunk route, feeder route,… straight route preferred to circuitous route… beside it the main change could be considered as marketing ones
- bus route numbering representing origin destination
- bus colored according to the served market
- Real time information of patrons
- All buses running on CNG
The list couldn’t have been complete without the introduction of the smart-card, which address the problem of fare integration (transfer). Some of the most visible change have already been discussed in Regarding Place.
Lot of expectation was carried with those changes, and aggressive targets was set. the conclusions of the exercise are more dim.
While the reform of the bus system has lead to a dramatically improved service on several metrics like bus speed or bus punctuality…in despite of a significant increase in ridership, it has failed to reach the very aggressive goal originally set in that aspect, and eventually has translated in concerns over the subsidiary level of the bus system which is greater than expected. A noticed problem is that the route concession is paid on a mileage bus service basis disregarding the ridership, hence providing no incentive for the bus operator to increase it.
But the main lesson is that an extensive subway network shouldered by a massive bus network will never replace the -at least perceived- convenience of car. and at some point you have also to take action to control the usage of it to avoid road congestion, and that is road pricing.
The idea seems to have been introduced in Seoul in the 90′s , but the currency crisis in 97 will have stopped the implementation of it (it is not clear why it has no been resumed later on). The Chair of the lecture, will conclude it by the very relevant question:
The answer of the speaker will be not less interesting, and was understood like it:
 Seoul Bus System Reform Project, D. Kim and S. Gaham, fall 2009
 Environmentally Sustainable
Transport Policies in Korea, S. Lee, 2009
 Four year old Namsan Tunnel Congestion Pricing scheme in Seoul: success or failure?. B. Son, and K. Y Hwang, Int Assoc Traffic Saf Sci journal, vol. 26, no 1, pp28-36, 2002
 You will aslo find an interview at the Translink’s Buzzer blog
December 1, 2010
For purpose of illustration, below is a map overlaid with the traffic volume on the main bridges of the Vancouver area.
Some comments on it:
- Traffic volume distribution is hourly, for weekday, and estimated when data is not available 
- truck traffic on Knight bridge is estimated at 15% of the overall traffic
- Red line indicate the capacity of the bridge, assuming a 1400 vehicle/hr capacity per lane
- For bridge over the Fraser, A suggested Congestion pricing toll  has been added in yellow
below is the tabulaton of weekday daily traffic, and source for the considered bridge
|Arthur Laing Bridge||YVR||4||84,000 |
|Oak Bridge||Province||4||80,700 |
|Knight Bridge||Translink||4||99,500 |
|QueensBorough Bridge||Province||4||84,000 |
|George Massey Tunnel||Province||4||89,500 |
|Alex Fraser Bridge||Province||6||117,500 |
|Pattullo Bridge||Translink||4||74,500 |
|Port Mann Bridge||Province||5||116,000 |
|Iron Workers Bridge||Province||6||127,400 |
|Lions gate Bridge||Province||3||63,000 |
Comments on the Congestion pricing data
They come from the thesis of Peter Wightman , which is the most complete work I have uncovered on the topic applied on the Vancouver area, but still limited on the Fraser crossing bridges.
- toll is applied once the traffic volume exceed the road capacity
- Price elasticity demand is assumed at -0.2 peak hours, and -0.25 off peak, That is pricing evaluation has been done in 2006, assuming the transit option of the time, i.e. no Canada line and no transit over Port Mann bridge. Another study suggests a price elasticity demand closer to 0.35, in case of improved transit (i.e. Congestion regulation could be achieved with significant lower toll that those envisioned by , and revenue of congestion pricing too)
For information, below are the estimated revenue of congestion pricing, in the case of all bridge crossing the Fraser tolled (this assuming the 2006 situation, and a relatively low elasticity of -0.2 peak, and -0.25 off peak period) according to .
|Bridge||daily revenue (South dir)||daily revenue (North dir)|
|George Massey Tunnel||89,600||64,400|
|Alex Fraser Bridge||126,000||67,200|
|Port Mann Bridge||271,600||90,300|
It is worth to note that congestion pricing could apply only when bridge reach capacity. At the exception of the Port Mann bridge West bound, that is an average of only 4 hours per bridge (or put in other way, crossing a bridge could be free 20hours per day),… but still generating close to 200 millions of annual revenue only on the bridge crossing the Fraser river.
it is also worth to notice that under a congestion pricing scheme as proposed by , the Port Mann bridge toll could have been lower than the one considered by the province (in green on the map above) most of the time…and the Pattullo bridge needs to be tolled less than 3hrs per day (per direction).
 Number from BC MOT as of Sept 2010 (weekday average on the month
 Number from Bridging the Infrastructure Gap, Get Moving BC, Sept 2008. Data are mostly from 2006
 I got hourly distribution only for BC MOT bridge, hourly distribution is estimated for other bridge to provide an idea of level of congestion on them (and eventually pricing level/period). While data Provincial bidge are from 2010, and other bridge from 2006, it has been no noticeable increase in traffic in the interim, what is consistent with a longer trend already exhibited in a gateway program definition report of january 2006
 There is a discrepancy with number from the MovingBC report eventually due to the fact, that the authors of this report overlooked the fact that the traffic counter is installed south of the Sea Island exit ramp on the Highway 99 south bound. That explains why there is a traffic increase on that bridge
 From Freeway to feeway: Congestion pricing policies for BC’s Fraser River crossing, Peter Wightman, Simon Fraser University, 2008
 Estimating Commuter Mode choice: A discrete choice Analysis impact of road pricing and parking charge, Washbrook, Haider and Jaccard, Transportation, 2006.
 Toll for new Port Mann Bridge will be $5.15 for casual users, Damian Inwood, The province, June 2010.
February 22, 2010
Recently Surrey, BC has organized an urban planning competition Townsift mounted by Trevor Boddy. Several area was brought for consideration by contestant, but lets take a look at the one supposed to integrate a transit centre: Newton.
Most master planned communities are a failure in the sense they are unable to be anything else than bedroom communities: they can be considered nice and desirable suburbs like Columbia MD, or Irvine, CA, but they are not by any measure vibrant cities you can think as a destination…In that matter Richmond is more successful than the previously mentioned suburbs.
At the exhibition presentation, the question of “why all the master planned communities fails to be nothing more than bedroom communities?” has been raised. the panel composed of Lisa Rochon and Bing Thom eventually had some opinion, mostly related on the architecture design.
Capitalizing on Bing Thom “living organism” parabola for our living place, we think that the transportation network, road and transit, are the blood of the city, when architects/designer see them more often than not as a constraint not much different than a sewage system: so if there is no blood, there is no life, and it is what happen to most of the “master planned communities“.
More often than not, the “master planned community” has road surrounding a “village” organized around a “pedestrian plaza“: it can eventually work in a resort where people have nothing much else to do than hang around and sipping coffee at the “pedestrian plaza“, but in the real life people eventually work, and have little reason to go especially to a place just to “hang around sipping a coffee“…
How the contestants fare against this idea
Preliminary: None of the contestants have brought into consideration a “vertical” integration of the transit centre, it is unclear if it was due to an unfortunate constraint of the contest or to the own choice of the contestants.
The good idea:
the water element
The major flaws
- they have designed a nice pedestrian Plaza, but why people would go there? what is the point? The plaza is not visible of the outside, and there is no natural straightforward way to invite people from outside to experiment it
- You are in suburbs, natural traffic pedestrian flow will be from and to the “transit station”: the walkway is carefully avoiding it…the whole concept is turning his back to connectors (blood bringing life), and this concept is typical of master plan communities.
- The pedestrian alley seems to be grade separated of other traffic: a bad idea in itself for such location: Not only geography, but also because pedestrian and motor traffic level couldn’t justify this grade separation.
- Worst, the car oriented strip mall is well recognized and reinforced, by furthering the disconnection of it with the rest of the pedestrian oriented place.
- The lack of grid readability with rather weird road turns is prejudicial to the urban quality of the environment. At the end, the 70s’ish curved building form is not really convincing.
the good idea
The green corridor
The major flaws
- The corridor is not visible of King George Boulevard and in fact the whole block design turn its back to this boulevard
- The retail space is seen as an extension of the strip mall neither connecting to the Transit mall neither open to the major thoroughfare.
- The green corridor doesn’t connect to the park nearby, neither to the civic area, especially the library.
- The transit hub looks like to be a constraint more than the center of the project.
the good idea
the orchard and community gardens: the civic space designed as a peaceful, intimate one is well though, the connection to a more active space via a cenotaph transition is a brilliant idea.
The major flaw
- The pedestrian Public space (square) is insulated, sterilized, neither connecting to major street or transit.
- The scale and building from on the South West are inappropriate to compliment an urban King George Boulevard.
- Transit Hub is ignored, he is surrounded by ground oriented residential!
The good idea(s)
The transit hub is the focal point: It is the only proposal capitalizing on it, and recognizing that in a successful transit oriented environment, this will be the main public place, with its esplanade.
The penetration of the nearby park into the block (the green link concept).
The slightly grade separated sport field.
The building form contribute to give an interesting urban feeling to the 72th avenue and contribute also positively to the King Georges Boulevard streetscape.
The major flaw
The location of the esplanade not opened to a major thoroughfare is not inviting enough, in such a sort as non transit user could totally ignore its existence:
- It could generate some safety issue feeling late at night (lack of “eyes” on the Esplanade)
- it could be also not well located in the event of a streetcar on King Georges. Overall the contribution to King Gorge Blvd could be improved
- Retail street location are hardly identifiable on this design (“Main street”)?, and it looks they could be hardly noticeable from outside the block.
In despite of still significant major flaws in term of space utilization, It seems pretty clear that the proposal 77 is dominating the competition. Thought it brings some improvement to the urban space organization compared to the concept brought to public consideration by the city of Surrey, it doesn’t bring any major breakthrough thinkings.
whether the transit centre had been replaced by a dump field, other contestant’s proposal couldn’t have been different , but there is some interesting idea to pick up here and there to improve the current concept of the Surrey department planning which is far to be free of flaw itself in term of space organization, since it also tend to ignore the block contribution to King Georges, and “sterilize” ex -nihilo purposeless public plaza.
 A good urban plan should make the pedestrian feel safe, and at night car traffic provide this feeling… the contestant proposes here the “walk in a park at night” experience for their pedestrian experience… the master planned city Cergy Pontoise in France was offering it, that has proven to be a dramatic failure.